Citing data from the World Report on Vision in 2019, there are 2.2 billion people in the world who experience visual impairment and/or blindness. Of 1.42 million and 17.52 million are children. With 50% of children's blindness can be prevented or treated, if effective treatment measures are taken.
The International Center for Eye Health, London together with the WHO Program for the Prevention of Blindness classifies the causes of visual impairment in children into 2 types, namely based on the part of the eye that is affected and based on the time it started.
1. Classification of causes of vision loss based on the part of the eye affected
- Whole eye: Microphthalmia, anophthalmia
- Cornea: Injuries to the cornea, keratoconus
- Lens: Cataract, Aphakia
- Uvea: Aniridia, Uveitis
- Retina: Retinal dystrophy
- Glaucoma: Buphthalmos, glaucoma
- Optic Nerve: Optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia
- Normal eye appearance: Cortical blindness, amblyopia
2. Classification of causes of vision loss based on the time it started
- Conception: Genetic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities
- During pregnancy: Teratogens (Rubella, Toxoplasmosis)
- Perinatal period: Premature retinopathy, injury during delivery
- Childhood: Vitamin A deficiency, measles, trauma
- Cannot be determined: Developmental disorders
Many causes of vision loss in children such as vitamin A deficiency, measles, conjunctivitis in newborns, retinopathy of prematurity, and harmful use of traditional medicine. This condition can be prevented by giving vitamin A, prevention of measles, proper management of ophthalmia neonatorum, and education on the dangers of using traditional medicine in the eye. Other cases such as cataracts, glaucoma, and corneal ulcers if treated appropriately and quickly can prevent blindness.
There needs to be proper management from various parties to get the expected results. If you or your child experience vision problems, make an appointment and consult with the experts for early detection and further examination. You can make appointments via the mDoc app.