The World Health Organization (WHO) mentions cancer as one of the main causes of death worldwide and in Indonesia. The Global Burden of Cancer Study also reports that the total cases of cancer in Indonesia in 2020 reached 396,914 cases and a total of 234,511 deaths, with the prevalence of cases of death from cancer increasing to 8.8 percent. Lung cancer ranks first in cases of death with a total of 30,843 people or 13.2 percent of the total cancer deaths.
According to WHO, smoking is a major risk factor for cancer in Indonesia. In cigarettes, there are cancer-causing carcinogens that trigger damage to the lining cells of the lungs. Repeated exposure makes the lining cells of the lungs, which were originally able to regenerate normal cells, become even more damaged. It is this damage that causes abnormal cell changes and develops into cancer.
According to a lung cancer specialist, dr. Asrul Harsal, MD, KHOM, 85 percent of lung cancer is caused by smoking, and the rest is caused by pollution, chemicals, radiation, drugs, and the environment. Apart from active smokers, this group is called the lung cancer susceptible group.
1. Passive smoker
Cigarette smoke releases more than 5,000 harmful chemicals, which are invisible, spread easily, linger in the air for hours, and stick to things like clothing where passive smokers can inhale.
2. Patient's family
Lung cancer is also influenced by genetic factors, so if a family member has lung cancer, it is very likely that other family members will suffer from the same thing.
Increasing age also increases the risk of lung cancer because the lung function of older people is more limited than younger people. Two-thirds of lung cancers are diagnosed in people aged 45-71 years.
4. Often exposed to pollutants
Asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, radon, and other pollutants can increase the risk of lung cancer.
5. Cancer sufferer
Radiation therapy as a treatment for other cancers can also trigger cell abnormalities and lung cancer.
Quitting smoking, avoiding exposure to carcinogens, and adopting a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of lung cancer. Or if you are one of the vulnerable groups, consult a doctor through the mDoc application for prevention or treatment.